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PostPosted: Fri Dec 26, 2014 7:47 am 
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Japan has released full H5N8 sequences from a white naped crane in Kagoshima and a chicken in Myazaki. Although both have 8 gene segments that link back to the H5N8 sequences in South Korea in early 2014, they are distinct from the sequences in Europe, which match the sequences from Ciba.

Thus Japan has three distinct sub-clades co-circulating in late 2014.

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PostPosted: Fri Dec 26, 2014 7:52 am 
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One of these sub-clades that is distinct from the sequences in Europe appears to have a Fujian H5 clade 2.3.4.6 match with the northern pintail sequence from Wiser Lake.

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PostPosted: Fri Dec 26, 2014 10:30 am 
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highly pathogenic avian influenza that occurred in Miyazaki Prefecture in 2014
- Analysis of genomic sequences for the verification from the virus -
National Institute of Animal Health
Information Published: Friday, December 26, 2014
Point

The whole genome sequence of the causative virus of highly pathogenic avian influenza that occurred in the poultry farm in Miyazaki Prefecture in December 2014 (HPAI) I was deciphered.
This occurs with the cases of wild birds in Chiba Prefecture of poultry farms and in November of Kumamoto Prefecture of this year in April, has been shown that there is no direct association.
Summary

January 2014 or later, Korean house Kinya has continued to prevalent in wild bird H5N8 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus 1) (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus: HPAIV), the poultry of Kumamoto Prefecture in April in Japan cause the occurrence of HPAI in place since November, feces of Chiba Prefecture of wild birds (ducks), and is separated from Kagoshima Prefecture of vine, etc.. In addition, has been reported the occurrence of HPAI is caused by viruses of the same subtype in November and later Europe and North America of poultry, etc..
The NARO National Institute of Animal Health, HPAI causative virus of that occurred in the poultry farm in Miyazaki Prefecture in December 16, 2014 is H5N8 subtype 2) as well as to identify that it is a HPAIV, of all of the genes of this virus The nucleotide sequence I was quickly determined.
And are separated by the South Korea and Europe on the Chiba strains and public gene information database that has been separated from the feces of ducks in Kumamoto stocks and November 2014 that has been separated from dead chickens the determined nucleotide sequence in April 2014 I made a comparative analysis of the H5N8 subtype HPAIV gene.
This time, isolated virus (Miyazaki Ltd.) is, Kumamoto stock, Chiba stock, and South Korea since January, is derived from a common ancestor with the H5N8 subtype HPAIV that have occurred in the European poultry since November It is now clear.
On the other hand, Miyazaki strain, from the difference of gene sequences, Kumamoto stocks and Chiba stock, and Europe generated stock has been clearly distinguished.
HPAI that occurred in this Miyazaki Prefecture, Kumamoto Prefecture of poultry farms in April this year, the cases of wild birds in Chiba Prefecture in November found that direct relationship does not. This will be different from the one that occurred in April 2014, after the fall, we have suggested that at least two types of H5N8 subtype HPAIV are newly entering the country.
From the fact that mutation of the amino acid sequence deduced to be involved in the infection to humans was observed, Miyazaki strains I are considered less likely to infect humans directly.
Budget: NARO operating grants, Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology "infectious disease research international Network Promotion Program"

Contact us
Research Officer
NARO National Institute of Animal Health Director Tomoyuki Tsuda
Research personnel
NARO National Institute of Animal Health influenza prion disease Research Center Saito Takehiko
Spokesman
NARO National Institute of Animal Health Planning and Management section information public relations manager Inoue Akiko
Tel 029-838-7708 Fax 029-838-7709
Inquiries about press release

Detailed information

Background and History

Mainly in 2004 and later Asia, have been frequent occurrence of H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is, HPAI is not limited to impact on the poultry industry, are also found infection and death cases in humans from that, high interest as a public health problem not only animal health has been no.

January 2014 or later, H5N8 subtype HPAIV generation is continuing in South Korea is not currently tail convergence, home Kinya wild birds of the same subtype HPAIV later in November of Europe (Germany, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Italy) , such as the December entry into the North American continent of house Kinya wild birds are reported, the global epidemic has been concern. In Japan, it will continue to occur in the poultry farm of Kumamoto Prefecture in April 2014, since November, Chiba Prefecture, Tottori Prefecture, the separation of the H5N8 subtype HPAIV from wild birds had been reported in Kagoshima Prefecture, etc..

To December 16, 2014 in poultry breeding farm in Miyazaki Prefecture Nobeoka Kitagawa-cho, the occurrence of HPAI were observed. The National Institute of Animal Health, as established inspection agency of avian influenza, subtype identification of type A influenza virus that are separated by Miyazaki Livestock Hygiene Service Center, pathogenicity test, we conducted an analysis of the viral genome.

Contents and significance

Using the Miyazaki Livestock Hygiene type A influenza virus that has been separated by the Exchange (Miyazaki, Ltd.), hemagglutinin protein and (HA) make subtype identification of neuraminidase (NA), and confirm that it is a subtype H5N8 was. This subtype is the same as the HPAI causative virus of which have occurred in Korea from January 2014, has also been isolated from poultry farms of dead chickens in Kumamoto Prefecture in April of the same year (Kumamoto, Ltd.). Virus that has been further separated, BSL-3Ag 3) by the intravenous inoculation in chickens in the animal laboratory, we confirm that the pathogenicity of the virus is highly pathogenic.

Influenza viruses, eight RNA that is segmented has a genome of the major protein expressed, it is respectively PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, M, and NS genes known. Next-generation sequencer 4) showed that decipher the whole viral genome using, eight gene segments of Miyazaki strain, has continued to occur from the same year in January in South Korea of home Kinya wild bird H5N8 subtype HPAIV and Kumamoto stock, and shows a high homology to the H5N8 subtype HPAIV occurring in Europe poultry since November, it was found that it was derived from the same ancestor. More detailed genetic analysis 5) the results of performing, Miyazaki strain, has been clearly distinguished from Kumamoto stocks and Chiba, Europe generated strain virus. The National Institute of Animal Health, Chiba stock by whole genome analysis of already in Chiba Prefecture in November wild bird virus that has been separated from feces of (ducks) (Chiba, Ltd.) is clear that it is derived from the same and Europe occurrence Ltd. the city has.

based on the decrypted genomic sequences, results of analysis of the amino acid sequence is estimated to be involved in the infection to humans, it was considered less likely to directly infect humans.

From the above, causative virus of HPAI that occurred in Miyazaki Prefecture in December generation in Kumamoto Prefecture of H5N8 subtype HPAIV and April that repeatedly epidemic in Korea from this year in January, birds of Chiba Prefecture in November feces in an isolated H5N8 subtype HPAIV, but currently belong to the same lineage as it has been generated to H5N8 subtype HPAIV in Europe, and Kumamoto stocks and Chiba stock was found to be directly related not. From this fact, in 2014 after the fall, unlike those that occurred in April, at least two types of H5N8 subtype HPAIV that are newly entering the country has been suggested.

Future plans and expectations

The decrypted genomic sequence, soon GISAID 6) we plan to registered and published. the published data is currently being utilized in order to clarify the global movement of spread H5N8 subtype HPAIV to Europe and North America. Animal in the Institutes of Health has already published analysis to November 22 the genome sequence of the Chiba virus that has been separated from wild birds feces of (Chiba Co.). On the next day of publication, in Commentary of Recombinomics (http://www.recombinomics.com/News/11231 ... urope.html), Chiba strains were isolated in Europe than South Korea strains that have been separated into 2014 initial and H5N8 that it is a subtype HPAIV and near edge was introduced to the world via the Internet.

Future, we plan to continue to the nature of the virus in more detail apparent in the pathogenicity of the analysis and the like for the pharmacokinetics and duck of the virus in chicken Miyazaki stock. In addition, a joint research with other research institutes and universities, such as the receptor specificity of infection experiments and virus using mammals are expected to be in the clear. More recently, if the genetic information of the public HPAIV being detected around the world is expected to be estimated from the more detailed virus.

Glossary of terms

1) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Type A influenza virus that exhibits a high mortality in chickens by inspection method based on rules of international Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Some viruses of H5 and H7 subtypes main.
2) (of type A influenza virus) subtype
Two glycoproteins present in the viral surface (hemagglutinin protein: HA, neuraminidase: NA) virus classification method based on the type of. The HA, is from H1 H16, NA exists subtypes from N1 to N9 (new subtype of the virus have been reported Recent bats, it is proposed that each H17N10, H18N11 subtype). Typically the type of respectively described as H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, and the like.
3) BSL-3ag
Important infections reference laboratories where highly containment for handling pathogens are taken on livestock. A high degree of air-tightness is required stands for Bio-safety level-3 agriculture.
4) Next-generation sequencer
I do sequencing by different techniques from the sequencer based on traditional Sanger method. In the Sanger method, but was necessary primers complementary DNA in a gene as a template, is not dependent on the template gene sequence in the next generation sequencers, since a large amount of sequences can be analyzed, enabling rapid analysis of the genomic sequence such as .
5) detailed genetic analysis (phylogenetic tree analysis)
To investigate the genetic relationship between organisms (viruses), homology and base substitution patterns of gene sequences were analyzed using the computer and displayed as a branched tree genetic closely related between organisms (viruses) analysis method.
6) GISAID
Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data stands for. Is an international effort by scientists to share an array of all types of influenza viruses isolated in humans and animals, and is also performed providing rapid sequences published available databases.

http://www.naro.affrc.go.jp/publicity_r ... 55477.html

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PostPosted: Sat Dec 27, 2014 7:44 am 
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Commentary

http://www.recombinomics.com/News/12271 ... 3_Sub.html

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